[artinfo] Umberto Eco's 14 features of fascism
mollyhankwitz at gmail.com
Sat Nov 26 11:22:42 CET 2016
While Eco is firm in claiming "There was only one Nazism," he says,
"the fascist game can be played in many forms, and the name of the
game does not change." Eco reduces the qualities of what he calls
"Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism" down to 14 "typical" features.
1. The cult of tradition. "One has only to look at the syllabus of
every fascist movement to find the major traditionalist thinkers.
The Nazi gnosis was nourished by traditionalist, syncretistic,
2. The rejection of modernism. "The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason,
is seen as the beginning of modern depravity. In this sense
Ur-Fascism can be defined as irrationalism."
3. The cult of action for action's sake. "Action being beautiful in
itself, it must be taken before, or without, any previous
reflection. Thinking is a form of emasculation."
4. Disagreement is treason. "The critical spirit makes distinctions,
and to distinguish is a sign of modernism. In modern culture the
scientific community praises disagreement as a way to improve
5. Fear of difference. "The first appeal of a fascist or prematurely
fascist movement is an appeal against the intruders. Thus
Ur-Fascism is racist by definition."
6. Appeal to social frustration. "One of the most typical features of
the historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class,
a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political
humiliation, and frightened by the pressure of lower social
7. The obsession with a plot. "The followers must feel besieged. The
easiest way to solve the plot is the appeal to xenophobia."
8. The enemy is both strong and weak. "By a continuous shifting of
rhetorical focus, the enemies are at the same time too strong and
9. Pacifism is trafficking with the enemy. "For Ur-Fascism there is no
struggle for life but, rather, life is lived for struggle."
10. Contempt for the weak. "Elitism is a typical aspect of any
11. Everybody is educated to become a hero. "In Ur-Fascist ideology,
heroism is the norm. This cult of heroism is strictly linked with
the cult of death."
12. Machismo and weaponry. "Machismo implies both disdain for women and
intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from
chastity to homosexuality."
13. Selective populism. "There is in our future a TV or Internet
populism, in which the emotional response of a selected group of
citizens can be presented and accepted as the Voice of the People."
14. Ur-Fascism speaks Newspeak. "All the Nazi or Fascist schoolbooks
made use of an impoverished vocabulary, and an elementary syntax,
in order to limit the instruments for complex and critical
This abridged list (available in full at The New York Review of
Books) comes to us from Kottke, by way of blogger Paul Bausch,
who writes "we have a strong history of opposing authoritarianism. I'd
like to believe that opposition is like an immune system response that
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